[206], Civil wars in Angola and Mozambique promptly broke out, with incoming communist governments formed by the former rebels (and backed by the Soviet Union, Cuba, and other communist countries) fighting against insurgent groups supported by nations like Zaire, South Africa, and the United States. In 1916, after Portugal interned German ships in Lisbon, Germany declared war on Portugal. [116] Sousa returned to Lisbon a year later to become governor of India and never returned to Brazil. [161] A distinguished seventeenth-century member was Salvador de Sá. The Akan within the 'Minas' group had a reputation to have been experts in extrapolating gold in their native regions, and became the preferred group. There was also the election of Brazilian representatives to the Cortes Constitucionais Portuguesas (Portuguese Constitutional Courts), the Parliament that assembled in Lisbon in the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820. The expedition of García Jofre de Loaísa reached the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. Portugal responded by aiding king Gelawdewos with Portuguese soldiers and muskets. "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 22:28. [149][152], The Dutch eventually realized the importance of Goa in breaking up the Portuguese empire in Asia. The realms continued to have separate administrations. [111], Within a few years after Cabral arrived from Brazil, competition came along from France. [133], The Tamoio had been allied with the French since the settlement of France Antarctique, and despite the French loss in 1560, the Tamoio were still a threat. [197], Throughout 1917 Portugal dispatched contingents of troops to the Allied front in France. [13], The main Portuguese goal was trade, not colonization or conquest. [10] A key supporter of this policy was Infante Dom Henry the Navigator, who had been involved in the capture of Ceuta, and who took the lead role in promoting and financing Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460. [32] However, as it was not possible at the time to correctly measure longitude, the exact boundary was disputed by the two countries until 1777. * Empire colonial britannique Bien que l’exploration et la colonisation du monde aient été initiées au XVe siècle par les Portugais et les Espagnols, les Britanniques les ont suivi de près. Il existe un autre héritage lié à la présence portugaise dans les anciennes colonies comme le Brésil, l'Angola, le Mozambique, le Cap-Vert, Macao, la Guinée-Bissau et d'autres. In 1506, King Manuel I created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. l'empire n'avait cessé, depuis la promulgation de l'Acte colonial en juillet 1930, de faire l'objet d'une intense propagande : aux yeux du dictateur portugais, président du Conseil de 1932 à 1968, il incarnait la grandeur et la continuité historiques de la mission civilisatrice du pays. Le 4 août 1578, le jeune roi Sébastien Ier, qui avait gagné le Maroc à la tête d'une armée de 17 000 hommes, disparaît au cours de la bataille des Trois Rois. Cette mesure, considérée comme exceptionnelle et transitoire au Portugal, est maintenue après le congrès de Vienne de 1815, ce qui provoque un fort mécontentement en métropole. [103] By 1570 the Portuguese bought part of a Japanese port where they founded a small part of the city of Nagasaki,[104] and it became the major trading port in Japan in the triangular trade with China and Europe. Par la suite, les possessions africaines (Angola, Mozambique, Guinée-Bissau) sont étendues. According to Fernão Mendes Pinto, who claimed to be in this journey, they arrived at Tanegashima, where the locals were impressed by firearms, that would be immediately made by the Japanese on a large scale. Entre 1505 et 1511, Francisco de Almeida, le premier vice-roi des Indes, fondateur de l'empire colonial portugais en Asie, établit une série de comptoirs fortifiés et impose ainsi la présence portugaise dans les circuits commerciaux de l'océan Indien, jusqu’alors dominés par les Musulmans[pas clair]. This failed to happen and by the 1750s the Portuguese were able to implant a political stronghold in the region. João Gonçalves Zarco découvre Madère en 1419, Diogo de Silves et Diogo de Teive les Açores entre 1427 et 1452. [163], After the Portuguese were defeated by the Indian rulers Chimnaji Appa of the Maratha Empire[164][165] and by Shivappa Nayaka of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom[166] and at the end of confrontations with the Dutch, Portugal was only able to cling onto Goa and several minor bases in India, and managed to regain territories in Brazil and Africa, but lost forever to prominence in Asia as trade was diverted through increasing numbers of English, Dutch and French trading posts. La conquête se poursuit un temps en terre africaine autour de Ceuta par Alphonse V dit « l'Africain » avec la prise d'Alcácer-Ceguer en 1458 et celles d'Arzila, de Tanger et de Larache en 1471. Slaves were used, and the proportion of imported slaves in Madeira reached 10% of the total population by the 16th century. empire colonial portugais Au début du 15 e siècle, le Portugal fut le premier pays européen depuis l’Antiquité à se lancer dans l’aventure des explorations. [137] By 1575, the Tamoios had been subdued and essentially were extinct,[134] and by 1580 the government became more of a ouvidor general rather than the ouvidores. 20–21, Hong Kong & Macau By Jules Brown Rough Guides, 2002. p. 195, Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p. 37. Ces guerres coûtent la vie à 14 000 portugais (De plus, au moins 20 000 soldats reviendront handicapés ou mutilés, généralement du fait des mines, et plus de 140 000 resteront traumatisés). [151] That same year, Cornelis de Houtman was sent by Dutch merchants to Lisbon, to gather as much information as he could about the Spice Islands. [150] This foretaste of the riches of the East galvanized English interest in the region. [78][79], After the Sultan of Bintan detained several Portuguese under Tomás Pires, the Chinese then executed 23 Portuguese and threw the rest into prison where they resided in squalid, sometimes fatal conditions. The handover on December 20, 1999 officially marked the end of the Portuguese Empire and end of colonialism in Asia. C'est aussi le début d'investissements proto-capitalistes de montants très élevés pour l'époque dans des opérations maritimes souvent risquées. [204] Portugal's new ruling authorities also recognized Goa and other Portuguese India's territories invaded by India's military forces, as Indian territories. With the regular maritime route linking Lisbon to Goa since 1497, the island of Mozambique became a strategic port, and there was built Fort São Sebastião and a hospital. Almeida refused to turn over power and soon placed Albuquerque under house arrest, where he remained until 1509. En 1488, Bartolomeu Dias, premier Européen à pratiquer la navigation hauturière dans l'Atlantique sud, double le cap de Bonne-Espérance avec une flotte de trois caravelles et pénètre dans l'océan Indien. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999. For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Henri cherche ainsi à savoir jusqu'où s'étend le territoire musulman et imagine peut-être établir un contact avec le mythique royaume chrétien du Prêtre Jean afin de joindre leurs forces contre les Maures. [191] However, the idea was unacceptable to the British, who had their own aspirations of contiguous British territory running from Cairo to Cape Town. [58] Though the trade was largely dominated by the Gujurati, other groups such as the Turks, Persians, Armenians, Tamils and Abyssinians traded there. La conquête de Ceuta en 1415 par Jean Ier de Portugal amorce le processus des dit des « grandes découvertes » et marque le début de l'expansion territoriale portugaise hors de la péninsule Ibérique. [194] The main objective of these soldiers was to recapture the Kionga Triangle, in northern Mozambique, the territory having been subjugated by Germany. Pressure from natives and competing European fisheries prevented a permanent establishment and was abandoned five years later. [159][160], The loss of colonies was one of the reasons that contributed to the end of the personal union with Spain. Cet ouvrage relate l'histoire politique de la formation et de l'expansion de l'Empire portugais. [138], In 1580, King Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal after a crisis of succession brought about by King Sebastian of Portugal's death during a disastrous Portuguese attack on Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578. Le personnage-clé de cette période est le prince Henri le Navigateur, gouverneur de l'Ordre du Christ (héritier portugais de l'Ordre du Temple), ayant participé à la prise de Ceuta. A United Nations-sponsored referendum resulted in a majority of East Timorese choosing independence, which was finally achieved in 2002. En 1460, à la mort d'Henri, les Portugais ont atteint le golfe de Guinée. [24] Gomes, who had to explore 100 miles (160 km) of the coast each year for five years, discovered the islands of the Gulf of Guinea, including São Tomé and Príncipe and found a thriving alluvial gold trade among the natives and visiting Arab and Berber traders at the port then named Mina (the mine), where he established a trading post. After nearly three years of fighting (from a Portuguese perspective), World War I ended, with an armistice being signed by Germany. Dans le golfe persique, les Portugais expulsés d'Ormuz se rabattent sur Mascate et ses dépendances. In the 1730s contact with Spanish outposts occurred more frequently, and the Spanish threatened to launch a military expedition in order to remove them. [218] Also, in southern Italian dialects (e.g., Neapolitan), an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian arancia. Le Japon est atteint en 1543, à Nagasaki[3]. Two years later, on October 5, 1910, he was overthrown and fled into exile in England in Fulwell Park, Twickenham near London and Portugal became a republic. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 19 décembre 2020 à 20:43. Les Portugais parviennent aussi à éloigner les Turcs ottomans de l'Inde et à désamorcer, en 1521 et en 1572, les coalitions formées par les princes musulmans[3]. [173] This sharply checked Portuguese colonial ambitions in the late 18th century.[174]. Dans la première moitié du XVIe siècle, les Portugais s’assurent le contrôle de l'océan Indien, après avoir vaincu les flottes des États musulmans (Empire ottoman, Sultanat mamelouk, sultanat du Gujarat). [122], Of the fifteen original captaincies, only two, Pernambuco and São Vicente, prospered. [144], However, the union meant that Spain dragged Portugal into its conflicts with England, France and the Dutch Republic, countries which were beginning to establish their own overseas empires. In 1954, a local uprising resulted in the overthrow of the Portuguese authorities in the Indian enclave of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. [187][188], At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. The Portuguese Empire (Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed by Portugal. Anciennes possessions et colonies de l'empire du Portugal. [30], In 1492 Christopher Columbus's after-discovery for Spain of the New World, which he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. « empire colonial portugais » est également traité dans : Gama, Vasco de. [155][156], Meanwhile, in the Arabian Peninsula, the Portuguese also lost control of Ormuz by a joint alliance of the Safavids and the English in 1622, and Oman under the Al-Ya'arubs would capture Muscat in 1650. L'Inde annexe quant à elle Goa, Daman et Diu et des îles Anjidiv lors de l'opération Vijay en décembre 1961. Historian A.R. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million Portuguese refugees – the retornados. 84–85, From 1808 to 1821, the capital was the city of, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), forts and plantations along the African coastline, European enclaves in North Africa before 1830, Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India, The Recovery of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos, Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the agreement between the United Kingdom and China, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, 'Portugal's Discovery in China' on Display, "When Portugal Ruled the Seas | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine", The Presence of the "Portugals" in Macau and Japan in Richard Hakluyt's, "The great escape? À partir de 1946 pour l'Inde[7] et 1951 pour le reste des colonies[8], celles-ci ne sont plus considérées comme tel par l'Estado Novo mais comme des régions à part entière, parties intégrantes d'un Portugal pluricontinental et rassemblé. [62][63], The Portuguese empire pushed further south and proceeded to discover Timor in 1512. 201 articles sont actuellement liés au portail. In 1505 King Manuel I of Portugal appointed Francisco de Almeida first Viceroy of Portuguese India, establishing the Portuguese government in the east. Il est considéré comme l'un des dix plus grands empires de l'humanité depuis l'enregistrement des civilisations, et le premier pluricontinental . During the War of the Castilian Succession, a large Castilian fleet attempted to wrest control of this lucrative trade, but were decisively defeated in the 1478 Battle of Guinea, which firmly established an exclusive Portuguese control. [4] After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411. At the Versailles Conference, Portugal regained control of all its lost territory, but did not retain possession (by the principle of uti possidetis) of territories gained during the war, except for Kionga, a port city in modern-day Tanzania. [47], Although requested by Manuel I to further explore interests in Malacca and Sri Lanka, Almeida instead focused on western India, in particular the Sultanate of Gujarat due to his suspicions of traders from the region possessing more power. Indigenous freedom decreased in contrast to its period under the Jesuits, and the response to intermarriage was lukewarm at best. He and his nephew, Estácio de Sá, then established the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1567, after Mem de Sá proclaimed the area "São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro" in 1565. [97][98] However, when the Jaga attacked and conquered regions of Kongo in 1568, Portuguese assisted Kongo in their defeat. [36], The squadron of Vasco da Gama left Portugal in 1497, rounded the Cape and continued along the coast of East Africa, where a local pilot was brought on board who guided them across the Indian Ocean, reaching Calicut (the capital of the native kingdom ruled by Zamorins (This city also known as Kozhikode) in south-western India in May 1498. [132] While a Portuguese ambassador was sent to Paris to report the French intrusion, Joao III appointed Mem de Sá as new Brazilian governor general, and Sá left for Brazil in 1557. En 1483, Diogo Cao atteint l'embouchure du Congo. Empire colonial … [22] The success of sugar merchants such as Bartolomeo Marchionni would propel the investment in future travels. [citation needed] Around 1521, João Álvares Fagundes was granted donatary rights to the inner islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and also created a settlement on Cape Breton Island to serve as a base for cod fishing. The Mamlûk Sultanate sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri along with the Gujarati sultanate attacked Portuguese forces in the harbor of Chaul, resulting in the death of Almeida's son. Slave labor increased as well as involvement from the textile economy. [49] However, such posts were centralized by Afonso de Albuquerque after his succession and remained so in subsequent ruling. nécessaire]. L'Empire colonial portugais (en portugais : Império Colonial Português) désigne les territoires d'outre-mer occupés et administrés par le Portugal entre le début du XV siècle et le XX siècle. The Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was forced to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese, establishing an alliance to regain the country, giving in exchange Daman, Diu, Mumbai and Bassein. [153][154], The Dutch took their fight overseas, attacking Spanish and Portuguese colonies and beginning the Dutch–Portuguese War, which would last for over sixty years (1602–1663). La Prusse était un territoire d'Europe du nord qui ne faisait pas partie Saint-Empire romain germanique. [38] Cabral recommended to the Portuguese King that the land be settled, and two follow up voyages were sent in 1501 and 1503. Après une douzaine de tentatives portugaises, Gil Eanes double finalement le cap Bojador, point le plus méridional connu des Occidentaux, en 1434. Leonor Costa et al. [42] Although Cankili I of Jaffna initially resisted contact with them, the Jaffna kingdom came to the attention of Portuguese officials soon after for their resistance to missionary activities as well as logistical reasons due to its proximity with Trincomalee harbour among other reasons. La modification de l'Acte colonial inscrit dans la constitution la création de provinces ultramarines, subdivisions qui remplacent les colonies[9],[10]. Très vite le commerce très lucratif de l'or, de l'ivoire et des esclaves se substitue à l'esprit de découverte et de croisade. [189][190], The project to connect the two colonies, the Pink Map, was the main objective of Portuguese policy in the 1880s. Dans les années 1920 et 1930, le régime colonial instaure un système racial séparant les Africains « assimilés », qui ont reçu les bases d'une éducation leur permettant éventuellement d'occuper une place dans l’administration coloniale, des autres indigènes, privés de droits et soumis au travail forcé (qui ne sera aboli qu'en 1962). Spanish forces eventually captured the islands in 1583. Dutch and English interests used this new information, leading to their commercial expansion, including the foundation of the English East India Company in 1600, and the Dutch East India Company in 1602. [91] The fear of Turkish advances within the Portuguese and Ethiopian sectors also played a role in their alliance. 16th century Portuguese illustration from the Códice Casanatense, depicting a Portuguese nobleman with his retinue in India, By the end of 1509, Albuquerque became viceroy of the Portuguese India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Empire colonial portugais; Empire colonial belge; Empire colonial allemand; Empire colonial britannique Espaces coloniaux. [186], Although the royal family returned to Portugal in 1821, the interlude led to a growing desire for independence amongst Brazilians. In 1822, the son of Dom João VI, then prince-regent Dom Pedro I, proclaimed the independence of Brazil on September 7, 1822, and was crowned Emperor of the new Empire of Brazil. [168], The gold rush considerably increased the revenue of the Portuguese crown, who charged a fifth of all the ore mined, or the "fifth". [44], A Portuguese fleet under the command of Tristão da Cunha and Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Socotra at the entrance of the Red Sea in 1506 and Muscat in 1507. Le Timor oriental déclare également son indépendance en 1975, mais est aussitôt envahi et annexé par l'Indonésie, il n'en deviendra pleinement indépendant qu'en 2002. He based himself at Tamao island in a fort. Salazar refused to recognize the transfer of sovereignty, believing the territories to be merely occupied. The Chinese claimed that Simão kidnapped Chinese boys and girls to be molested and cannibalized. 1415-1999. The economic development as a whole was inspired by elements of the Enlightenment in mainland Europe. Il fut aussi l'un des plus durable et se confronta à une décolonisation laborieuse et souvent tragique ; la présence portugaise hors d'Europe a duré presque six siècles. [126][127], Tomé de Sousa built the capital of Brazil, Salvador, at the Bay of All Saints in 1549. [170] In spite of gold galvanizing global trade, the plantation industry became the leading export for Brazil during this period; sugar constituted at 50% of the exports (with gold at 46%) in 1760. In contrast to Almeida, Albuquerque was more concerned with strengthening the navy,[51] as well as being more compliant with the interests of the kingdom. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th centu… At the Cortes of Tomar in 1581, Philip was crowned Philip I of Portugal, uniting the two crowns and overseas empires under Spanish Habsburg rule in a dynastic Iberian Union. [21] By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. Le premier empire colonial français ... COMMENTAIRE : Au milieu du XVIème siècle, la France suit l’exemple de ses voisins espagnols et portugais en se lançant dans la conquête de l’Amérique du Nord. The same year, the tiny Portuguese fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá in Ouidah, a remnant of the West African slave trade, was annexed by the new government of Dahomey (now Benin) that had gained its independence from France. [46] After the capture of Socotra, Cunha and Albuquerque operated separately. As the King of Spain was also King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic, England, and France. [180] Among the conspiracies led by the Afro- population was the Bahian revolt in 1798, led primarily by João de Deus do Nascimento. Jorge Álvares arrive en Chine en 1513 et la première ambassade européenne dans ce pays, conduite par Tomé Pires, parvient à Canton en 1517. The Goa Inquisition (Bombay, 1961). [60], The Malacca peninsula became the strategic base for Portuguese trade expansion with China and Southeast Asia. [210], Presently, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) serves as the cultural and intergovernmental successor of the Empire. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Frochot, Michel. Les dates correspondent au début de la domination coloniale dans l'ensemble ou une partie du territoire, et au départ définitif de la puissance impériale. In 1557 the Chinese authorities allowed the Portuguese to settle in Macau, creating a warehouse in the trade of goods between China, Japan, Goa and Europe.[78][80].